Speech Development of Preschool Child
Speech Development of Preschool Child
To vocalize is a phase of the instinctive tendency to manipulate,and is based upon a tendency to respond to stimuli by movement and for mental stimulation to find expression in motor activity.
The factors which contribute to the modification and development of this “expressive instinct” are play, imitation and necessity.
The stages in the development of oral language as given by Major and Kirkpatrick are readily traced.
The first vocalization is reflexive crying in expression of discomfort which soon takes on variations so that the cry of hunger is quite distinguishable from that of anger.
A little later (the sixth week recorded by Major) gurglings, screams, and cooings appeared as evidences of energy or comfort. During the first quarter of the first year there developed an iinderstanding of soothing and caressing sounds as well as other tones expressive of emotions.
An association of words soon follows the understanding of tones. The “playful stage” begins with the second quarter of the first year when what is called “prelinguistic” babbling comes into prominence. During this period the child may make nearly every sound of every language.
On the last quarter there appears the tendency to imitate the sounds heard in the speech of others. Sometimes it is voluntary in response to urgings and again seems to be almost automatic. Tone, inflection and even rhythm are frequently imitated long before separate words are articulated. Every baby at some age has his little trick of “all-but-saying” “all gone” or “so big,” but often the tendency is so pronounced that the infant’s tireless repetition of sounds takes on the characteristics of adult conversation.
At this same time an understanding of the content of the speech of others is recognized and often a nine months old baby will respond in action to requests or statements.
The word learning stage may begin in the last few weeks of the first year or may be not until the second half of the second year, but as soon as a child begins to use sounds and words purposefully and uniformly to express wishes or ideas the word learning period is entered upon.
Pronunciation is a matter of motor coordination, auditory perception and memory. Every investigation yields interesting, though largely individual facts, in respect to the order of development of pronunciation.
The rate of acquiring vocabulary is dependent upon the child’s interests. There are periods of rapid increase as when interest is given primarily to objects and acts, and periods when only few new words are learned when interest is occupied with the use of words already acquired or with a new form of physical activity.
The kind of words found in the vocabularies of children of given ages is dependent largely upon the interests of the period. At first when interest is in objects, nouns predominate; later when interest turns to action, verbs come into prominence, though for a time nouns are used as verbs, as are also prepositions.Sometimes groups of words are used before single words but more usually the opposite is true, and single words are used with varying tones and inflections along with existing circumstances to convey a great variety of meanings.
The first step in sentence making is the substitution of words for inflections and gestures. With development of mental gred4 the child separates a situation into its elements, recognizes their relation and chooses words and arranges them to express the situation. Thus “car” said entreatingly with arms raised as father goes to the door later becomes “go car Dada” and finally “I want to go in the car with Dada” Other observations of the development of language during the sentence forming period is that: arrangement is determined largely by imitation though interest and attention are factors;
that”most of the child’s first sentences have no subject,many are without an assertive verb, while only a few are without an object;” and that “the length of sentence is doubled in a few months, and complex and compound sentences appear and increase in number, showing rapid growth in mental grasp and span of consciousness.”
Speech Development of Preschool Child Article Source ; The Psychology of preschool child Submitted by Iris Coldwell Frampton