Sense Perception in Preschool Child
Sense Perception in Preschool Child
The original equipment of the child includes sense organs, nerve connections and brain centers, the stimulation and functioning of which give rise to the simple mental state of sense perception. At birth the mechanism is quite imperfected, but through development from within the sense organs and the connections are completed so far as original nature intended they should be.Experience and such factors as development in interest, attention and discrimination contribute to the distinctness of perception.
At birth the sense organs of touch, taste and smell are ready to function, though imperfectly. A slight touch upon the nostrils brings grimaces of displeasure, while taste and smell are aroused only by strong flavors and odors.
The eye and ear are quite imperfect as sense organs, but begin within a few days to receive some impression from strong stimuli. During the first two or three years inner growth perfects the sense organs so that development in perception during later years is due to other factors.
At first the undifferentiated flood of sensations sweep into consciousness so unlocalized and meaningless that there results only the general feelings of satisfaction or annoyance. Sounds are mere noises, loud or faint; vision is light, dim or brilliant; discrimination in tone, shape, size or color comes much later.
Through experience with objects and acquaintance with the different sensations of vision, touch, sound, taste and smell, which these objects can arouse simultaneously, there results in consciousness perceptions of things.
To the extent that wide experience in sensory acquaintance is afforded is the development of sense perception possible.
Other factors contributing to the perfection of sense perception are attention and the ability to discriminate. With fleeting attention there is also inaccurate, indefinite and incomplete impression. Only when attention can be caught and held can the sense perceptions be clear and definite.
Lack of discrimination,the inability to discover likenesses and differences, retards development in sense perception.
To encourage a child in practice in such discrimination is to help him accumulate a wealth of mental content essential to intellectual growth. Not only are children’s sense perceptions limited, indefinite and incomplete, but it is observed that the stimulus necessary to give rise to a precept must be more intense than in the case of the adult.
For the child to recognize a familiar object, he mast see, feel, and hear it and in the same way as he formerly knew it to be. Because of what is children to get them to observe purpose Fully and to provide for their experiencing sensory stimulation in as many fields as is possible in order to develop habits of observation and a fund of perceptions.
Not only must children be exposed to an environment of this sort, but conversation must be utilized to insure rich, definite and detailed perceptions.termed “mental set” or the tendency of a state of mind to continue for at least a limited period of time, sense perceptions of children are likely to be colored by their passing mental states.Thus inaccuracies in perceptions result which may be the underlying causes of fears and exaggerations or lies.
What may be called a type of illusion is also common with children due to the strength of the influence of mental set upon sense perceptions.
A child becomes desperately hungry in the midst of his play and his mind turns to
dinner and circumstances surrounding it until finally he is positive that he
hears his mother announce the anticipated meal.
He rushes into the house only to find that it is but ten o’clock and mother is on the front porch chatting. The specific development of perception is difficult to trace, and different investigations emphasize different phases, but there are some facts now given general acceptance.
With the development of discrimination the perfection of vision continues up to sixteen years of age and beyond, though brightness and differences in some primary colors are perceived during the first six months.
Space perception begins at about three months and continues to develop for eight or nine years. The sensitivity of the skin is more pronounced in childhood than later unless practice necessitated by blindness or some other factor contributes greatly to its perfection.
Sound perception varies so greatly with individuals that it is difficult to find facts of general application except that the development during the early years of childhood is marked, and that age and practice contribute to discrimination.
While individual differences determine somewhat the development of sense perception, it is the duty and opportunity of the educator of preschool.