House Painting Color Mixing
House Painting Color Mixing
Drab and fawn color are derived from red and white and black and yellow. Buff is derived from white and orange-yellow. Cream is derived from white and orange-yellow. Corn-color is derived from white and orange-yellow. Maroon is derived from red and purple and black. Chestnut is derived from red and yellow and black.
Cuir color is derived from white and yellow and black. Tawny color is derived from white and yellow and black. We would, from choice, present examples of these tints and broken colors directly to the visual organs of the reader, but it is quite impracticable in a work of this kind, how-ever desirable it may seem.
Continuing this subject further, instructively, we present some facts which may prove valuable to one who may choose to mix colored pigments for his own profit or pleasure. The colors now employed in exterior house-painting being mostly neutral tints with a bit of positive color shown on the molds and trimmings, according to taste or fancy, as drabs, grays, and fawn-colors it follows, if a material can be found which in itself includes the colors necessary to produce any desired tint in the way of drabs or fawn-colors, to obtain such would be in the direction of economy ; a saving both in time and material.
Therefore, we would suggest, in such case, the employment of that very useful pigment known in the trade as umber. This is presented in two forms : first, as crude or native umber, called raw Turkey umber ; and also as burnt umber the native umber roasted which process causes it to take on a very rich, deep brown. These pigments, used in the production of any tint of drab or fawn-color, are the equivalent of black and red and yellow, and will give clearer tints than can ordinarily be produced by the last-named colors.
Burnt Turkey umber will give (mixed with white-lead or zinc-white) any desired tint in the way of warm drabs, and raw umber will give any desired shade of yellowish drab. The only caution necessary is care lest too much of the color may be used, the result of which would be a tint darker than might be wanted. In these days, when colored paints are offered of almost every possible tone and tint and shade suitable for use in house-painting, there would seem to be no good reason why a householder should subject himself to the trouble and expense of mixing his own colors, especially as a card showing these colored pigments is presented, where from he may select such color as taste or inclination may dictate.
Notwithstanding all these conveniences, it is possible maybe probable that some inquiring reader will prefer to make his own color, and look here to learn how to do It. To give rules for the production of every color, hue, tint, or shade, would be as impossible as to write a book which should include every possible combination of the letters which compose our alphabet.
The list of colored paints offered for sale in the ” country-store” or in the ordinary paint-shop, is not by any means exhaustive and, in giving instruction as to what paints to order for certain purposes, care must be taken to make no mention of those which are not, as a rule, within reach. As before said, white-lead, or zinc-white, is the staple of all light-colored oil-paints, and the quantity of coloring-matter, compared with the base, is as a drop in the bucket not literally, of course, but comparatively. In this connection attention is called .
Wherein the common and extreme adulteration of paints is set forth ; and for the reason that, in case one should follow the written directions below, and the result should disappoint, an excuse may be at hand for such an unexpected outcome. For example : suppose the would-be color-mixer to have on hand a hundred pounds of pure white-lead for the purpose of making a drab neutral tint for painting tare exterior of his dwelling-house.
He learns from the book that a single pound of pure burnt umber, or raw umber, as the case may be, will in all probability be sufficient to produce the tint or shade he may require ; the chances are, unfortunately, that the pound of umber he will get will be adulterated to the extent of eighty per cent., and will contain only a fifth part of the coloring-matter he requires, and will, when mixed in with the white, instead of giving the color required, simply change the comparatively pure white of the lead to a dirty white. Yet he has done according to the book, and the result is not as predicted.
The colored pigments used in tinting with white are burnt Turkey umber, raw Turkey umber, Indian red, Venetian red, chrome-yellow and the yellow chores, ultra-marine blue, Prussian blue (which is a deep purple), burnt Italian sienna, and raw Italian sienna. These latter named are transparent colors, so called, as are the umbers, Prussian blue, and verdigris.
Burnt umber, mixed into white-lead or zinc-white, will give almost any drab tint that can be desired, of a warm tone ; that is, tending to red. By the addition of more umber, one or two or more darker shades may be had for contrast on the molds and cornices and trimmings, which shades will be entirely in harmony with the body-color, by analogy. Not to repeat, the same rule will apply to the use of raw umber, only that yellow drabs, instead of red, will be the result, and the trimming colors so produced will be almost too cold. and greenish to please the eye. Good effects are produced by the introduction of some decidedly positive colors in moderate quantity, in contrast with neutral tints such, for example, as Indian red or some other rich red brown—and this practice is hereby recommended.
Raw sienna gives, with white, a soft, clear straw-color or buff. Burnt sienna, with white, produces a pink of an undesirable hue. Yellow ochre, that is, the genuine ” Rochelle ochre,” with white-lead, produces a range of tints most to be desired, and pure and sweet in tone, from the clear yellow-brown of the ochre-pigment up to the palest straw-color used ; the pigments thus produced will prove durable, and in color not fugitive. Indian red will give, with white-lead, a peach-blossom color, which was once a favorite color for walls in interior painting. Prussian blue gives all the tones of blue, from purple to the lightest sky-blue.
Verdigris gives with white a clear leaf-green, and with white and yellow a pea-green, which is a good color for wooden houses in the country. It will be borne in mind that in coloring with verdigris the paint will be very much darker when dried upon the building than when viewed in the mass. Pure French verdigris is blue to the eye, but, when ground in oil and used as a paint, it puts on a dark bronze-green, and deepens in hue for a long time after exposure to the light.
This pigment is specially adapted for ship and vessel painting, because of its unrivaled water proof qualities, its tenacity and non-liability to crack and flake off, and its property of drying under salt-water. When used for vessel-work it should be mixed as follows : Ten pounds of pure verdigris, two pounds of pure white lead, and one pound of chrome-green, light, so called. Venetian red with white produces an impure pink which will fade very quickly when exposed to the sunlight.